Though many people realize that crosswalks exist, there seems to be much confusion among the public as to what to do when encountering a crosswalk when walking or driving.
The laws that dictate crosswalk existence and use are found in Pennsylvania Vehicle Code, Title 75.
This article gathers vehicle code sections pertaining to pedestrian rights and responsibilities. Along with vehicle code excerpts, my personal comments have been added in italics. As I am not a lawyer, my commentary should not be construed as legal advice. Furthermore, these laws may be revised at any time.
Chapter 1. General Provisions
§ 102 Definitions
Chapter 31. General Provisions
Subchapter A. Obedience to and Effect of Traffic Laws
§ 3112. Traffic-control signals.
§ 3113. Pedestrian-control signals.
Chapter 35. Special Vehicles and Pedestrians
SUBCHAPTER C – RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF PEDESTRIANS
§ 3541. Obedience of pedestrians to traffic-control devices and regulations.
§ 3542. Right-of-way of pedestrians in crosswalks.
§ 3543. Pedestrians crossing at other than crosswalks.
§ 3544. Pedestrians walking along or on highway.
§ 3545. Pedestrians soliciting rides or business.
§ 3546. Driving through or around safety zone.
§ 3547. Right-of-way of pedestrians on sidewalks.
§ 3548. Pedestrians to yield to emergency vehicles.
§ 3549. Blind pedestrians.
§ 3550. Pedestrians under influence of alcohol or controlled substance.
§ 3551. Compliance with bridge and railroad warning signals.
§ 3552. Penalty for violation of subchapter.
§ 3710. Stopping at intersection or crossing to prevent obstruction.
§ 3711. Accidents involving death or personal injury.
§ 6109. Specific powers of department and local authorities.
“Business district.” The territory contiguous to and including a highway when within any 600 feet along the highway there are buildings in use for business or industrial purposes, including but not limited to hotels, banks, or office buildings, railroad stations and public buildings which occupy at least 300 feet of frontage on one side or 300 feet collectively on both sides of the highway.
Comment: This defines where bicyclists shall not ride on sidewalks, and pedestrian restrictions in § 6109, above.
(1) That part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway, measured from the curbs or, in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway; and, in the absence of a sidewalk on one side of the roadway, that part of a roadway included within the extension of the lateral lines of the existing sidewalk.
Comment: A crosswalk exists under the following conditions:
- Where a sidewalk would extend across the roadwalk parallel to the length of the sidewalk, measured from the curb line.
- When there are no sidewalks or curbs, a crosswalk is measured from the corner of two roads to the corresponding corner perpendicular across the road being crossed.
- If there is a sidewalk on only one side of the road being crossed, a crosswalk may be measured as the continuation of the existing sidewalk across the road.
Taken together, (a), (b) and (c) indicate that a crosswalk is present at every intersection, whether painted or not, and whether there are sidewalks on both, one or none of the legs of the intersection. Road user right of way is dictated by whether or not the intersection has a traffic signal or not. If no traffic signals, pedestrians have the right of way per § 3542(a), but shall not step out in front of motorists without giving them time to stop per § 3542(b).
(2) Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.
Comment: Marked crosswalks may be present not only at intersections, but also, mid-block (urban), or any other location where there are such pavement markings. For discussion: Do these crosswalks still exist if the paint has worn off partly or completely?
“Highway.” The entire width between the boundary lines of every way publicly maintained when any part thereof is open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel. The term includes a roadway open to the use of the public for vehicular travel on grounds of a college or university or public or private school or public or historical park.
Comment: Per § 3544, a pedestrian may walk on the shoulder of a highway. We are looking to confirm if a pedestrian may legally walk along the right of way on private propery next to the roadway if no shoulder has been provided.
“Pedestrian.” A natural person afoot.
Comment: Pedestrians may also include people in wheelchairs, people with children in strollers or people walking their bicycles.
“Right-of-way.” The right of one vehicle or pedestrian to proceed in a lawful manner in preference to another vehicle or pedestrian approaching under such circumstances of direction, speed and proximity as to give rise to danger or collision unless one grants precedence to the other.
“Roadway.” That portion of a highway improved, designed or ordinarily used for vehicular travel, exclusive of the sidewalk, berm or shoulder even though such sidewalk, berm or shoulder is used by pedalcycles. In the event a highway includes two or more separate roadways the term “roadway” refers to each roadway separately but not to all such roadways collectively.
Comment: Roadway does not include the shoulder. In the sections, describing pedestrian movements, this definition clears the shoulder as distinct from crossing the road(way), and therefore is my interpretation, that a pedestrian may wait on the shoulder to cross an intersection with no sidewalks.
“Sidewalk.” That portion of a street between curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines, intended for use by pedestrians.
Comment: For discussion: “Sidewalk” here defines not only a traditional raised concrete walkway, but also the space between a vehicle travel lane and adjacent property lines. Does this mean the shoulder of a road is a “sidewalk”?
“Urban district.” The territory contiguous to and including any street which is built up with structures devoted to business, industry or dwelling houses situated at intervals of less than 100 feet for a distance of a quarter of a mile or more.
Comment: “Urban District” defines where a pedestrian is restricted from crossing mid-block as in § 3543(c).
3112. Traffic-control signals.
(a) General rule.–Whenever traffic is controlled by traffic-control signals exhibiting different colored lights, or colored lighted arrows, successively one at a time or in combination, only the colors green, red and yellow shall be used, except for special pedestrian signals carrying a word legend, and the lights shall indicate and apply to drivers of vehicles and pedestrians as follows:
(1) Green indication.–
(i) Vehicular traffic facing a circular green signal may proceed straight through or turn right or left unless a sign at such place prohibits either such turn except that vehicular traffic, including vehicles turning right or left, shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicles and to pedestrians lawfully within the intersection or an adjacent crosswalk at the time the signal is exhibited.
Comment: Turning traffic must yield to pedestrians in a crosswalk who have walk signal or green signal in their direction. Common knowledge, but not always followed.
(ii) Vehicular traffic facing a green arrow signal, shown alone or in combination with another indication, may enter the intersection only to make the movement indicated by the arrow, or such other movement as is permitted by other indications shown at the same time. Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.
(iii) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in section 3113 (relating to pedestrian-control signals), pedestrians facing any green signal may proceed across the roadway within a crosswalk.
Comment: At intersections without pedestrian signals, vehicles must yield right of way to pedestrians who face a green traffic signal. We are unsure if a “No Pedestrian” sign at these intersections is enforceable or proof that it is not.
(2) Steady yellow indication.–
(i) Vehicular traffic facing a steady yellow signal is thereby warned that the related green indication is being terminated or that a red indication will be exhibited immediately thereafter.
(ii) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in section 3113, pedestrians facing a steady yellow signal are thereby advised that there is insufficient time to cross the roadway before a red indication is shown and no pedestrian shall then start to cross the roadway.
Comment: At intersections without pedestrian signals, pedestrians should watch the traffic signal, and should not start to cross if faced with a steady yellow signal.
(3) Steady red indication.–
(i) Vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal alone shall stop at a clearly marked stop line, or if none, before entering the crosswalk on the near side of the intersection, or if none, then before entering the intersection and shall remain standing until an indication to proceed is shown except as provided in subparagraph (ii).
(ii) Unless signing is in place prohibiting a turn, vehicular traffic facing a steady red signal may enter the intersection to turn right, or to turn left from a one-way highway onto a one-way highway after stopping as required by subparagraph (i). Such vehicular traffic shall yield the right-of-way to pedestrians lawfully within an adjacent crosswalk and to other traffic lawfully using the intersection.
(iii) Unless otherwise directed by a pedestrian-control signal as provided in section 3113, pedestrians facing a steady red signal alone shall not enter the roadway.
Comment: At intersections without pedestrian signals,with a steady red signal, vehicles must stop at a stop line or before entering the crosswalk, or if none, then before entering the intersection (pedestrians may be present). When making a legal turn-on-red, vehicles who stop, must yield right of way to pedestrians before turning. Pedestrians shall not cross when faced with a steady red signal.
(b) Places other than intersections.–In the event an official traffic-control signal is erected and maintained at a place other than an intersection, the provisions of this section shall be applicable except as to those provisions which by their nature can have no application. Any stop required shall be made at a sign or marking on the pavement indicating where the stop shall be made, but in the absence of any such sign or marking the stop shall be made at the signal.
(c) Inoperable or malfunctioning signal.–If a traffic-control signal is out of operation or is not functioning properly, including, but not limited to, a signal that uses inductive loop sensors or other automated technology to detect the presence of vehicles that fails to detect a vehicle, vehicular traffic facing a:
(1) Green or yellow signal may proceed with caution as indicated in subsection (a)(1) and (2).
(2) Red or completely unlighted signal shall stop in the same manner as at a stop sign, and the right to proceed shall be subject to the rules applicable after making a stop at a stop sign as provided in section 3323 (relating to stop signs and yield signs).
(Dec. 21, 1998, P.L.1126, No.151, eff. 60 days; July 20, 2016, P.L.861, No.101, eff. 60 days)
- 3113. Pedestrian-control signals.
(a) General rule.–Whenever special pedestrian-control signals exhibiting words or symbols are in place, the signals shall indicate as follows:
(1) Word “Walk” or walking person symbol.–Pedestrians facing the signal should proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the right-of-way by the drivers of all vehicles.
(2) Phrase “Don’t Walk” or upraised hand symbol.–Pedestrians should not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal, but any pedestrian who has partially completed his crossing on the “Walk” signal should proceed to a sidewalk or safety zone while the “Don’t Walk” signal is showing.
(3) Flashing “Walk”.–Pedestrians facing the signal are cautioned that there is possible hazard from turning vehicles, but pedestrians may proceed across the roadway in the direction of the signal and shall be given the right-of-way by the drivers of all vehicles.
(4) Flashing “Don’t Walk” Signal.–Pedestrians should not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the signal, but any pedestrian who has partly completed crossing during the “Walk” signal should proceed to a sidewalk or safety zone, and all drivers of vehicles shall yield to the pedestrian.
Comment: Pedestrians shall not start to cross the street when faced with a steady or flashing “Don’t Walk” signal, but may finish crossing the street if they began during the “Walk” signal.
(b) Local regulation.–This section does not prohibit a municipality from establishing a summary offense for violation of subsection (a)(2) or (4).
(c) Penalties.–The driver of a vehicle who violates subsection (a) commits a summary offense and, upon conviction, shall be sentenced to pay a fine of $50. This subsection shall not apply to those municipalities that establish a summary offense as authorized under subsection (b) with a fine in excess of $50.
(Dec. 7, 1990, P.L.635, No.164, eff. imd.; June 25, 2001, P.L.701, No.68, eff. 120 days; June 26, 2001, P.L.734, No.75, eff. 60 days)
2001 Amendments. Act 75 overlooked the amendment by Act 68, but the amendments do not conflict in substance (except for the amount of the fine, as to which Act 75 has been given effect) and have both been given effect in setting forth the text of section 3113.
Cross References. Section 3113 is referred to in sections 3112, 3541 of this title.
3541. Obedience of pedestrians to traffic-control devices and regulations.
(a) Traffic-control devices.–A pedestrian shall obey the instructions of a police officer or other appropriately attired person authorized to direct, control or regulate traffic.
(b) Traffic and pedestrian-control signals.–Local authorities by ordinance may require pedestrians to obey traffic and pedestrian-control signals as provided in sections 3112 (relating to traffic-control signals) and 3113 (relating to pedestrian-control signals).
3542. Right-of-way of pedestrians in crosswalks.
(a) General rule.–When traffic-control signals are not in place or not in operation, the driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian crossing the roadway within any marked crosswalk or within any unmarked crosswalk at an intersection.
Comment: At all intersections without traffic signals or pedestrian signals, drivers must yield (slow down or stop) at every intersection where a person is lawfully crossing the street on foot or wheelchair. This raises the discussion: does every intersection include crosswalks (marked or unmarked)? Definition of a “crosswalk” guides this discussion.
(b) Exercise of care by pedestrian.–No pedestrian shall suddenly leave a curb or other place of safety and walk or run into the path of a vehicle which is so close as to constitute a hazard.
Comment: Pedestrians must give drivers reasonable time to see them and yield, without the driver needing to slam on their brakes.
(c) Limitation on vehicles passing.–Whenever any vehicle is stopped at any crosswalk at an intersection or at any marked crosswalk to permit a pedestrian to cross the roadway, the driver of any other vehicle approaching from the rear shall not overtake and pass the stopped vehicle.
Comment: This is called a “multiple threat”, when one driver sees a pedestrian and yields, then a driver following in the same or adjacent lane does not see the pedestrian. Therefore, drivers should be aware and and not pass another vehicle that is slowing down.
(d) Application of section.–Subsection (a) does not apply under the conditions stated in section 3543(b) (relating to pedestrians crossing at other than crosswalks).
Comment: Pedestrians do not have right-of-way (ROW) to cross mid-block or between intersections.
(e) Penalties.–The driver of a vehicle who violates subsection (a) commits a summary offense and shall, upon conviction, be sentenced to pay a fine of $50.
(June 25, 2001, P.L.701, No.68, eff. 120 days; June 26, 2001, P.L.734, No.75, eff. 60 days)
2001 Amendments. Act 75 overlooked the amendment by Act 68, but the amendments do not conflict in substance (except for the amount of the fine, as to which Act 75 has been given effect) and have both been given effect in setting forth the text of section 3542.
Cross References. Section 3542 is referred to in section 1535 of this title.
- 3543. Pedestrians crossing at other than crosswalks.
(a) General rule.–Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than within a crosswalk at an intersection or any marked crosswalk shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
(b) At pedestrian tunnel or overhead crossing.–Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
(c) Between controlled intersections in urban district.–Between adjacent intersections in urban districts at which traffic-control signals are in operation pedestrians shall not cross at any place except in a marked crosswalk.
(d) Crossing intersection diagonally.–No pedestrian shall cross a roadway intersection diagonally unless authorized by official traffic-control devices or at the direction of a police officer or other appropriately attired person authorized to direct, control or regulate traffic. When authorized to cross diagonally, pedestrians shall cross only in accordance with the signal pertaining to the crossing movements.
Comment: Section 3543(a) and 3543(c) require that pedestrians must yield to vehicle traffic when crossing between intersections, unless there is a marked crosswalk between intersections. Furthermore, Section 3543(c) states that in urban areas, pedestrians may not cross mid-block when adjacent intersections have traffic signals, unless there is a mid-block, marked crosswalk. Crossing intersections diagonally may only be done when authorized.
Cross References. Section 3543 is referred to in section 3542 of this title.
3544. Pedestrians walking along or on highway.
(a) Mandatory use of available sidewalk.–Where a sidewalk is provided and its use is practicable, it is unlawful for any pedestrian to walk along and upon an adjacent roadway.
(b) Absence of sidewalk.–Where a sidewalk is not available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk only on a shoulder as far as practicable from the edge of the roadway.
(c) Absence of sidewalk and shoulder.–Where neither a sidewalk nor a shoulder is available, any pedestrian walking along and upon a highway shall walk as near as practicable to an outside edge of the roadway and, if on a two-way roadway, shall walk only on the left side of the roadway.
(d) Right-of-way to vehicles.–Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, any pedestrian upon a roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
Comment 1: Section 3544 applies to pedestrians walking along a roadway, not crossing a roadway. A pedestrian must use a sidewalk if a sidewalk is present, AND it is practicable (in usable condition and clear of snow, ice and debris).
Comment 2: If no sidewalk is present, a pedestrian shall walk along the left shoulder of a road so long as the shoulder is in usable condition (clear of snow, ice and debris). This raises the discussion: what if there is sidewalk only on the right side of the road that ends mid-block/between intersections, where there is no crosswalk? Must the pedestrian cross (where there is no crosswalk) to follow the left shoulder of the road?
Comment 3: For discussion: My interpretation is that Section 3544(d) is a double-negative and that pedestrians legally walking along a road (according to Section 3544), have the right of way over other vehicles.
3545. Pedestrians soliciting rides or business.
No person shall:
(1) Stand on a roadway for the purpose of soliciting a ride.
(2) Stand on a roadway for the purpose of soliciting employment, business or contributions from the occupant of any vehicle.
(3) Stand on or in proximity to a highway for the purpose of soliciting the watching or guarding of any vehicle while parked or about to be parked on a street or highway.
Cross References. Section 3545 is referred to in section 7714 of Title 35 (Health and Safety).
Comment: No hitchhiking or conducting business, including soliciting donations.
3546. Driving through or around safety zone.
(a) Through zones.–No vehicle shall at any time be driven through or within a safety zone.
(b) Around zones.–Traffic may move on either side of a safety zone unless prohibited from driving to the left of the zone by the installation of an official traffic-control device as provided in this title.
Comment: A safety zone is a traffic island between lanes of travel…. Other uses?
3547. Right-of-way of pedestrians on sidewalks.
The driver of a vehicle emerging from or entering an alley, building, private road or driveway shall yield the right-of-way to any pedestrian approaching on any sidewalk extending across the alley, building entrance, road or driveway.
Cross References. Section 3547 is referred to in section 1535 of this title.
3548. Pedestrians to yield to emergency vehicles.
(a) General rule.–Upon the immediate approach of an emergency vehicle making use of audible and visual signals meeting the requirements of this title, every pedestrian shall yield the right-of-way to the emergency vehicle.
(b) Exercise of care by driver.–This section does not relieve the driver of an emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons using the highway nor from the duty to exercise due care to avoid colliding with any pedestrian.
(June 26, 2001, P.L.734, No.75, eff. 60 days)
3549. Blind pedestrians.
(a) General rule.–The driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to any totally or partially blind pedestrian carrying a clearly visible white cane or accompanied by a guide dog and shall take such precautions as may be necessary to avoid injuring or endangering the pedestrian and, if necessary, shall stop the vehicle in order to prevent injury or danger to the pedestrian.
(b) Effect of absence of cane or dog.–This section shall not be construed to deprive a totally or partially blind pedestrian not carrying a cane or not being guided by a dog of the rights and privileges conferred by law upon pedestrians crossing streets or highways, nor shall the failure of a totally or partially blind pedestrian to carry a cane or to be guided by a guide dog upon the streets, highways or sidewalks of this Commonwealth be held to constitute contributory negligence in and of itself.
(c) Penalty.–A violation of subsection (a) constitutes a summary offense punishable by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $150.
(Oct. 4, 2002, P.L.845, No.123, eff. 60 days)
Comment: This is universal right of way for visually-impaired pedestrians. Drivers should be aware of the possibility of their presence.
2002 Amendment. Act 123 added subsec. (c).
Cross References. Section 3549 is referred to in section 1535 of this title.
- 3550. Pedestrians under influence of alcohol or controlled substance.
A pedestrian who is under the influence of alcohol or any controlled substance to a degree which renders the pedestrian a hazard shall not walk or be upon a highway except on a sidewalk.
Comment: Pedestrians should be in control of their actions, and may not walk while intoxicated, except where there is a sidewalk. Discussion: My interpretation is that they an intoxicated pedestrian is not allowed to cross the street.
3551. Compliance with bridge and railroad warning signals.
(a) Bridges.–No pedestrian shall enter or remain upon any bridge or approach to any bridge beyond the bridge signal, gate or barrier after a bridge operation signal indication has been given.
(b) Railroad crossings.–No pedestrian shall pass through, around, over or under any crossing gate or barrier at a railroad grade crossing or bridge while the gate or barrier is closed or is being opened or closed.
(c) Penalty.–A violation of this section constitutes a summary offense punishable by a fine of not less than $50 nor more than $150.
(Dec. 21, 1998, P.L.1126, No.151, eff. 60 days)
1998 Amendment. Act 151 added subsec. (c).
- 3552. Penalty for violation of subchapter.
Except as otherwise provided for in this subchapter, any pedestrian violating any provision of this subchapter is guilty of a summary offense and shall, upon conviction, be sentenced to pay a fine of $5.
(Oct. 4, 2002, P.L.845, No.123, eff. 60 days)
3710. Stopping at intersection or crossing to prevent obstruction.
No driver shall enter an intersection or a crosswalk or drive onto any railroad grade crossing unless there is sufficient space on the other side of the intersection, crosswalk or railroad grade crossing to accommodate the vehicle operated without obstructing the passage of other vehicles, pedestrians or railroad trains notwithstanding any traffic-control signal indication to proceed.
Cross References. Section 3710 is referred to in section 3327 of this title.
Comment: Drivers shall not block an intersection or crosswalk when stopping.
3742. Accidents involving death or personal injury.
(a) General rule.–The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident resulting in injury or death of any person shall immediately stop the vehicle at the scene of the accident or as close thereto as possible but shall then forthwith return to and in every event shall remain at the scene of the accident until he has fulfilled the requirements of section 3744 (relating to duty to give information and render aid). Every stop shall be made without obstructing traffic more than is necessary.
(1) Except as otherwise provided in this section, any person violating this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree.
(2) If the victim suffers serious bodily injury, any person violating subsection (a) commits a felony of the third degree, and the sentencing court shall order the person to serve a minimum term of imprisonment of not less than 90 days and a mandatory minimum fine of $1,000, notwithstanding any other provision of law.
(3) (i) If the victim dies, any person violating subsection (a) commits a felony of the second degree, and the sentencing court shall order the person to serve a minimum term of imprisonment of not less than three years and a mandatory minimum fine of $2,500, notwithstanding any other provision of law.
(ii) In addition to the minimum term of imprisonment provided for in subparagraph (i), the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing shall provide within its guidelines a sentencing enhancement if the victim dies as the result of a violation of subsection (a). The provisions of this subparagraph shall not be an element of the crime, and notice of the provisions of this subparagraph shall not be required prior to conviction, but reasonable notice of the Commonwealth’s intention to proceed under this subparagraph shall be provided after conviction and before sentencing.
(c) Authority of sentencing court.–There shall be no authority in any court to impose on an offender to which this section is applicable any lesser sentence than provided for in subsection (b)(2) or (3) or to place such offender on probation or to suspend sentence. Sentencing guidelines promulgated by the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing shall not supersede the mandatory sentences provided in this section.
(d) Definitions.–(Deleted by amendment).
(Dec. 11, 1986, P.L.1530, No.166, eff. 60 days; Apr. 4, 1996, P.L.53, No.18, eff. 60 days; Oct. 19, 2010, P.L.557, No.81, eff. 60 days; July 5, 2012, P.L.914, No.93, eff. 60 days; June 30, 2014, P.L.814, No.85, eff. 60 days)
2014 Amendment. Act 85 amended subsec. (b).
2010 Amendment. Act 81 deleted subsec. (d). The preamble of Act 81 provided that Act 81 may be referred to as the Sgt. Michael C. Weigand Law.
1996 Amendment. Act 18 amended subsecs. (b), (c) and (d).
Cross References. Section 3742 is referred to in sections 1532, 1541, 1542, 1611, 3744, 3745.1 of this title; section 3103 of Title 23 (Domestic Relations); section 5551 of Title 42 (Judiciary and Judicial Procedure).
6109. Specific powers of department and local authorities.
(a) Enumeration of police powers.–The provisions of this title shall not be deemed to prevent the department on State-designated highways and local authorities on streets or highways within their physical boundaries from the reasonable exercise of their police powers. The following are presumed to be reasonable exercises of police power:
(16) Prohibiting pedestrians from crossing a roadway in a business district or any designated highway except in a crosswalk.
(17) Restricting pedestrian crossings at unmarked crosswalks.
Comment: Question, in #17 above, how would police formally restrict pedestrian crossing at unmarked crosswalks? (by signage or presence of an officer?) Does permanent signage fall under police powers?
PennDOT Pedestrian Safety Page
CAT Walk Page
PennDOT Pedestrian Presentation 2009
Comments written by Scott Slingerland, P.E., LCI, Director
Coalition for Appropriate Transportation (CAT)